# Automatic Type Annotations For Python

By Jay Nagpaul | 14 Dec 2017

## Setup

This guide assumes a working installation and basic knowledge of Python 3.6.x. First we’ll install the library used to create automatic type annotations, MonkeyType by Instagram.

```
>>> pip install MonkeyType
>>> pip install pytest
```

Then we’ll create our example project to test out MonkeyType. Let’s try it out with the fibonacci sequence.

```
>>> mkdir fibonacci
>>> cd fibonacci
```

```
# fibonacci.py
def fibonacci(n):
if n == 0:
return 0
elif n == 1:
return 1
else:
return fibonacci(n-1)+fibonacci(n-2)
```

Let’s try it out

```
>>> fibonacci(10)
55
>>> fibonacci('10')
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for -: 'str' and 'int'
```

As you can see, this function is expecting for you to pass in an integer for it otherwise it will raise a type error. We can manually add the type annotation to help future consumers of this code, but being humans **and** programmers we often forget.

## Automating It

Great, we now have a file named fibonacci.py in our folder named fibonacci. Let’s write a simple test for us to use.

```
# test.py
from fibonacci import fibonacci as F
def test_fibonacci():
assert F(10) == 55
assert F(0) == 0
assert F(1) == 1
```

We can test this out by running the command `pytest`

.

Now it’s time for us to collect the call traces. Run the command `monkeytype run test.py`

. You should see a new file appear “monkeytype.sqlite3”, this is a sqlite database filled with each function call, and the types returned and passed in. We can apply type annotations with the command `monkeytype apply fibonacci`

.
Now check out the file fibonacci.py:

```
def fibonacci(n: int) -> int:
if n == 0:
return 0
elif n == 1:
return 1
else:
return fibonacci(n - 1) + fibonacci(n - 2)
```

**Success!** We have successfully added type annotations to our module with barely any work!

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